McAfee Institute.(2008). ORC Investigations. Retrieved on July 21st, 2012

B. Prasad, “Intelligent Techniques for E-Commerce”, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 4 (2) (2003) 65-71.

Congress, House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, Organized Commerce: Theory and Implementation,” Decision Support Systems, 24 (1) (1998) 17-27.

H.S. Shah, N.R. Joshi, A. Sureka, and P.R. Wurman, “Mining eBay: Bidding Strategies and Shill David Lucking-Reiley, “Using Field Experiments to Test Equivalence Between Auction Formats: Magic on the Internet.” American Economic Review, 89( 5)(1999): 1063-1080

F.M. Menezes and P.K. Monteiro, An Introduction to Auction Theory, Oxford University Press, 2005, 10-11.

K. Chui and R. Xwick, “Auction on the Internet-A Preliminary Study,” Manuscript available at, July 7, 2008

King Rogers, “Organized Retail Theft,” in Retail Crime, Security, and Loss Prevention: An Encyclopedic Reference, ed. Charles A. Sennewald and John H. Christman (Elseiver Inc., 2008).

L.S. Bagwell, “Dutch Auction Repurchases: An Analysis of Shareholder Heterogeneity,” Journal of Finance, 47 (1) (1992) 71-105. (2012). How to Protect Your Privacy on Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Retrieved from and-linkedin/

National Consumer League, “Online Auctions Survey-Summary of Findings,” Retrieved on July 7,2008 from
National Retail Federation, 2010 Organized Retail Crime Survey, 2010, p. 7. Ibid., p. 9. National Retail Federation, 2009 Organized Retail Crime Survey, 2009, p. 8.See, for example,
testimony of Brad Brekke, Vice President of Assets Protection, Target Corporation, before the U.S.

Organized Retail Crime Annual Report 2008: Describing a Major Problem.

P. Milgrom and R. Weber, “A Theory of Auctions and Competitive Bidding,” Econometrica, 50(1982) 1089-1122.

P.R. Wurman, W.E. Walsh, and M.P. Wellman, “Flexible Double Auctions for Electronic

Retail Theft Prevention: Fostering a Comprehensive Public-Private Response, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 25, 2007, H.Hrg. 110-122.

R.L. Reiley, “Vickrey Auctions in Practice: From Nineteenth-Century Philately to

Twenty-First-Century E-Commerce,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (3) (2000) 183-

R.P. McAfee and J. McMillan, “Auctions and Bidding,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XXV: (1987) 699-738.

Tracy Johnson and Read Hayes, “Behind the Fence: Buying and Selling Stolen Merchandise,”
Security Journal, vol.16, no. 4 (2003).

W. Vickrey, “Counter speculation, Auctions, and Competitive Sealed Tenders,” Journal of Finance, Vol. 16 (1961) 8-37.

Auld, J., N. Dorn, and N. South (1986). “Irregular Work, Irregular Pleasures: Heroin in the 1980’s.” In R. Mathews and J. Young (eds.), Confronting Crime. London: Sage.

Bennett, T., K. Holloway, and T. Williams (2001). “Drug Use and Offending: Summary Results From the First Year of the NEW-ADAM Research Program.” Research Findings 148. London: Home Office.

Bent Society (2008). Setting the Record Straight About Smartwater for Perpetuity.

Blakey, G., and M. Goldsmith (1976). “Criminal Redistribution of Stolen Property: The Need for Law Reform. “ Michigan Law Review 74:1511-1565.

Clarke, R.V. (1999). Hot Products: Understanding, Anticipating, and Reducing Demand for Stolen Goods. Police Research Series, Paper 112. London: Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Research Development and Statistics Directorate.

Cornish, D. (1994). “The Procedural Analysis of Offending and its Relevance for Situational Crime Prevention.” In R.V. Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies. Vol. 3, pp. 151-196. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. [Full Text]

Cotter, C., and J. Burrows (1981). Property Crime Program: A Special Report Overview of the Sting Program and Project Summaries. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.

Cromwell, P., J. Olson, and D. Avery (1993). “Who Buys Stolen Property? A New Look at Criminal Receiving.” Journal of Crime and Justice 16(1):75-95.

Davis, D. (1998). Internet Detective: An Investigator’s Guide. Police Research Group. London: Home Office.

Eck, J. (1994). “A General Model of the Geography of Illicit Retail Marketplaces.” In J. Eck and
D. Weisburd (eds.), Crime and Place. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 4, pp. 67-93. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. [Full Text]

Eckersley, S. (2003). “Putting the Brakes on Lorry Theft.” (Lancashire Constabulary) Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text]

Ekblom, P., H. Law, and M. Sutton (1996). Domestic Burglary Schemes in the Safer Cities Program. Home Office Research Study No. 164. London: Home Office.

Felson, M. (2002). Crime and Everyday Life, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, C.A.: Pine Forge Press, Sage.

Ferman, L., S. Henry, and M. Hoyman (1987). “The Informal Economy.” Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Science (493):154-172.

Field, S. (1990). Trends in Crime and Their Interpretation: A Study of Recorded Crime in Post- War England and Wales. Home Office Research Study No. 119. London: Home Office.

Finucane, M. (2009). “Police Try New Tactic in Cell Phone Robberies: They Target Stores Selling Used Ones.” The Boston Globe, Jan. 15.

Foster, J. (1990). Villains: Crime and Community in the Inner City. London: Routledge.

Fredrickson, D.(2010). Master Surveillant™ Organized Retail Crime (ORC) Surveillance Training. Retrieved on October 30th, 2012

Gill, M., T. Burns-Howell, M. Hemming, J. Hart, R. Hayes, A. Wright, and R.V. Clarke (2004). The Illicit Market in Stolen, Fast-Moving Consumer Goods. Leicester, U.K.: Perpetuity Research and Consultancy Ltd.

Hale, C., C. Harris, S. Uglow, L. Gilling, and A. Netton (2004). Targeting the Markets for Stolen Goods: Two Targeted Policing Initiative Projects. Home Office Development and Practice Report No. 17. London: Home Office. [Full Text]

Harris, C., C. Hale, and S. Uglow (2003). “Theory Into Practice: Implementing a Market Reduction Approach to Property Crime.” In K. Bullock and N. Tilley (eds.), Crime Reduction and Problem-Oriented Policing. Cullompton, England: Willan Press.

Henry, S. (ed.) (1981). Can I Have It in Cash? A Study of Informal Institutions and Unorthodox Ways of Doing Things. London: Astragal Books.

———— (1978). The Hidden Economy: The Context and Control of Borderline Crime. London: Martin Robertson and Co.

Hobbs, D. (1989). Doing the Business: Entrepreneurship, the Working Class, and Detectives in the East End of London. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Johns, T., and R. Hayes (2003). “Behind the Fence: Buying and Selling Stolen Merchandise.”
Security Journal 16(4):29-44.

Johnson, D., M. Natarajan, and H. Sanabria (1993). “‘Successful’ Criminal Careers: Toward an Ethnography Within the Rational Choice Perspective.” In R. Clarke and M. Felson (eds.), Routine Activity and Rational Choice: Advances in Criminological Theory. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transactions Publishers.

Justice Technology Information Network (2007). “Pawn Transaction Database for Law Enforcement.”

Kerckhoff, D., and G. Kleinknecht (1980). “St. Louis County Responds to Hot Goods.” Police Chief 47(5):45-47, 69.

Knuttson, J. (1984). Operation Identification: A Way to Prevent Burglaries? National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention, Research Division Report No 14. Stockholm: The National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention.

Langworthy, R. (1989). “Do Stings Control Crime? An Evaluation of a Police Fencing Operation.” Justice Quarterly 6(1):27-45.

Langworthy, R., and I. Lebeau (1992). “The Spatial Evolution of Sting Clientele.” Journal of Criminal Justice 20(2):135-145.

Lanter, D. (1999). “In the Business of Fencing: Making Sense of Federal Sentencing Enhancements for Dealers in Stolen Goods.” Texas Law Review 77(6):1485-1525.

Larsen, E. (n.d.). “APS Solves Property Crimes for Eau Claire Police Department.” GovtoGov Solutions.

Lewis, L. (2006). “Organized Retail Crime: Retail’s No. 1 Security Issue.” California Grocer, April, pp. 2-11.

McKinnon, J. (2006). “Volatile Formula: How Patriot Act Helped Convict Man in Baby-Food Ring.” Wall Street Journal, April 4, p. A1.

NACS (2007). “Fact Sheet: Cigarette Theft.” Alexandria, Va.: National Association of Convenience Stores.

Nahmias, D. (2006). “Store Owners Charged With Buying and Shipping Stolen Infant Formula and Other Goods for Resale in New York.” News Release, October 27, U.S. Department of Justice, Northern District of Georgia.

Newfoundland and Labrador Government (2006). “Government Unveils Flea Markets Regulation Act.” News release, November 28.
Newman, G., and R.V. Clarke (2003). Superhighway Robbery: Preventing E-Commerce Crime. Cullompton, Devon, U.K.: Willan Publishing.

Parker, H., K. Bakx, and R. Newcombe (1988). Living With Heroin: The Impact of Drugs “Epidemic” on an English Community. Milton Keynes, U.K.: Open University Press.

Pease, K. (2002). “Crime Prevention.” In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford, England.: Oxford University Press.

Pengelly, R. (1997). “How To Handle the Stolen Goods Racket.” Police (May):13-17.

———— (1996). “The Black Economy Boom: Handlers Play a Big Role in Criminal Activity but Current Performance Indicators Mean Little Is Being Done To Target Those Involved in the Market for Stolen Goods.” Police Review (December 13):14-16.
Pennell, S. (1979). “Fencing Activity and Police Strategy.” The Police Chief (September):71-75. Plate, T. (1975). Crime Pays! An Inside Look at Burglars, Car Thieves, Loan Sharks, Hit Men,
Fences and Other Professionals in Crime. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Raub, R. (1984). “Effect of Antifencing Operations on Encouraging Crime.” Criminal Justice Review 9(2):78-83.

Reno, J. (2008). “Rising Ripoffs: Thefts of Manhole Covers Increase as Metals Prices Soar.”
Newsweek. Web Exclusive. May 19.

Reuter, P., R. MacCoun, & P. Murphy (1990). Money From Crime: A Study of the Economics of Drug Dealing in Washington, D.C. Santa Monica, C.A.: The RAND Corporation, Drug Policy Research Center.

———— (1985). The Organization of Illegal Markets: An Economic Analysis. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Rosenfeld, R. (2009). “Crime is the Problem: Homicide, Acquisitive Crime, and Economic Conditions.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 25(3): 287-306.

Schmitt, B. (2003). “Detroit, Wayne County, Mich., Target Store Owners Selling Stolen Goods.”
Detroit Free Press, September 11, p. B.1.

Schneider, J. (2005a). “Stolen-Goods Markets: Methods of Disposal.” British Journal of Criminology 45 (2): 129-140.

— (2005b). “The Link Between Shoplifting and Burglary: The Booster Burglar.” British Journal of Criminology 45(3):395-401.

———— (2003). “Prolific Burglars and the Role of Shoplifting.” Security Journal 16(2):49-59.

Skelton, C. (2005). “Crooks Using eBay To Fence Stolen Property. Vancouver Sun, October 13,
p. A1.

Smith, J., J. Sheridan, and D. Yurcisin (1991). How To Set Up and Run a Successful Law Enforcement Sting Operation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Steffensmeier, D. (1986). The Fence: In the Shadow of Two Worlds. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield.

Steffensmeier, D., and J. Ulmer (2005). Confessions of a Dying Thief: Understanding Criminal Careers and Illegal Enterprise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.

Stevenson, R., and L. Forsythe (1998). The Stolen Goods Market in New South Wales: An Interview Study With Imprisoned Burglars. Sydney: New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. [Full Text]

Struzzi, D. (1998). “Roanoke Police Make Dent in Stolen-Goods-For-Drugs Market: ‘I Certainly Didn’t Envision [Drug-Related Crime] Intruding Into This Neighborhood’.” Roanoke Times & World News, August 2, p. B1.

Sutton, M. (2008). “How Prolific Thieves Sell Stolen Goods: Describing, Understanding, and Tackling the Local Markets in Mansfield and Nottingham: A Market Reduction Approach Study.” Internet Journal of Criminology.

———— (2004). “The Market Reduction Approach Is Route-Level Situational Crime Prevention.” In R. Hopkins Burke (ed.), Hard Cop, Soft Cop: Debates and Dilemmas in Contemporary Policing. Cullompton, Devon, U.K.: Willan Publishing.

———— (2003a). “How Burglars and Shoplifters Sell Stolen Goods in Derby: Describing and Understanding the Local Illicit Markets: A Dynamics-of-Offending Report for Derby Community Safety Partnership.” Internet Journal of Criminology.

———— (2003b). “Theft, Stolen Goods, and the Market Reduction Approach.” In J. Shapland, H. Albrecht, J. Ditton, and T. Godefroy (eds.), The Informal Economy: Threat and Opportunity in the City. Freiburg, Germany: Max-Planck Institute.

———— (2002). “Fencing.” In D. Levinson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, C.A.: Sage.

———— (1998). Handling Stolen Goods and Theft: A Market Reduction Approach. Home Office Research Study No. 178. London: Home Office.

———— (1996). Implementing Crime Prevention Schemes in a Multiagency Setting: Aspects of Process in the Safer Cities Program. Home Office Research Study No. 160. London: Home Office.

———— (1995). “Supply by Theft: Does the Market for Secondhand Goods Play a Role in Keeping Crime Figures High?” British Journal of Criminology 38(3):400-416.

———— (1993). From Receiving to Thieving: The Market for Stolen Goods and the Incidence of Theft. Home Office Research Bulletin No. 34. London: Home Office.

Sutton, M., S. Hodgkinson, and M. Levi (2008). “Handling Stolen Goods: Findings From the 2003 Offending, Crime, and Justice Survey.” Internet Journal of Criminology.

Sutton, M., B. Perry, J. Parke, and C. John-Baptiste (2007). Getting the Message Across: Using Media To Reduce Racial Prejudice and Discrimination. London: Department of Communities and Local Government.

Sutton, M., and J. Schneider (1999). “Theft, Stolen Goods, and Market Reduction Approach.” In
C. Brito and S. Allan (eds.), Problem-Oriented Policing, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum.

Sutton, M., J. Schneider, and S. Hetherington (2001). Tackling Theft With the Market Reduction Approach. Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series Paper No. 8. London: Home Office.

Talamo, J. (2007). “Organized Retail Crime: Setting the Stage for an ORC Strategy.” Loss Prevention (January/February) 6(1):22-30.

Talamo, J., P. Kay, K. McAlister, and J. Hajdu (2007). “Organized Retail Crime: Executing the ORC Strategy.” Loss Prevention (March/April) 6(1):51-61.

Tremblay, P., Y. Clermont, and M. Cusson (1994). “Jockeys and Joyriders: Changing Patterns in Car Theft Opportunity Structures.” British Journal of Criminology 34(3):307-321.

Tuckey, S. (2007). “Stolen Art Is Sold Online: Expert.” National Underwriter/Property & Casualty Risk & Benefits Management 111(18):26.

Venkatesh, S. (2006). Off the Books: The Underground Economy of the Urban Poor. Cambridge, M.A..: Harvard University Press.

Walsh, M. (1976). Strategies for Combating the Criminal Receiver of Stolen Goods: Organized Crime Antifencing Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Regional Operations, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.

Webby, S. (2008). “San Jose Police Bust Huge Criminal Retailing Rings.” The Mercury News,
June 6.

Weiner, K., D. Besachuch, & C. Stephens (1981). Detroit Police Department Antifencing Project: January 1977 Through January 1981: Final Evaluation. Detroit: Detroit Police Department.

Whitehead, P., and P. Gray (1998). Pulling the Plug on Computer Theft. Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Policing Research Series Paper No. 101. London: Home Office.

Wilbur, D. (2004). “D.C. Cracks Down as Stolen-Goods Dealers Evolve: Fencing Becomes More Sophisticated, Disciplined.” Washington Post, August 16, p. A1.

Wright, T., and S. Decker (1994). Burglars on the Job: Street Life and Residential Break-Ins. Boston: Northeastern University Press.


Was this helpful?

Yes No
You indicated this topic was not helpful to you ...
Could you please leave a comment telling us why? Thank you!
Thanks for your feedback.

Post your comment on this topic.

Post Comment