The purpose of this section is to focus on existing approaches and techniques for the seizure of crime proceeds and instrumentalities that can be potentially relevant in terms of virtual currencies as adapted from the UNODC. To this end, practical procedures and considerations relevant to seizure and prospective confiscation will be described.

Similar to the approach employed throughout this Manual, procedural options for the seizure of crime proceeds and instrumentalities comprise activities aimed at detecting such proceeds (asset tracing) and actual seizure of such assets through available legal procedures. While this division may seem superficial on the surface, the practical considerations of virtual currencies as proceeds and instrumentalities of crime highlight the distinctions between these approaches, not least from an institutional standpoint.

The approaches and procedures listed in this section are structured in a certain order that attempts to apply the logic of criminal investigations to the context of virtual currencies. However, due to the new and untested nature of the issues of this very context, the sequence of actions and techniques provided herein is for general guidance only.


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