Tags or keywords are assigned to datasets based on dataset content to improve the searchability and identification of datasets by certain criteria. Tags include topics, themes, and metadata specific to salmon and salmon habitat, and allow for more detailed filtering than what is accommodated by the more general Categories or Collections. A controlled vocabulary of tags was developed to ensure consistency and is provided below grouped by topic along with definitions of each tag.
archaeological record The body of physical evidence about the past. It is composed of sites, artifacts, monuments, ecofacts, burials, and features. archaeology The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains. cultural heritage An expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic
expressions and values.
early history Past events in the time period before modern history, which is sometimes considered to begin circa AD 1450. historical data Collected data about past events and circumstances. historical ecology Practical framework of concepts and methods for studying the past and future of the relationship between people and their environment. historical land use A history involving management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. historical landscapes Geographical area that historically has been used by people, or shaped or modified by human activity, occupancy, or intervention, and that possesses a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of areas of land use, vegetation, buildings and structures, roads and waterways, and natural features.
baseline climate Baseline observational climate data used as a reference point for projected climate changes. climate change A change in global or regional climate patterns. climate projection Model-derived estimates of future climate. climate trends Directional changes in climate patterns. drought A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water. precipitation Precipitation is any liquid or frozen water that forms in the atmosphere and falls back to the Earth. It comes in many forms, like rain, sleet, and snow. Precipitation forms in the clouds when water vapor condenses into bigger and bigger droplets of water. When the drops are heavy enough, they fall to the Earth. temperature An objective measurement of heat or cold.
bec zones BEC stands for Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification, a system used by the BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development. BEC zones are the highest level of ecosystem classification and represent areas of broad macroclimate. They are generally named after dominant tree species and a descriptor of the general climate or region. Additional information can be found here. biodiversity The variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification A system of natural taxonomic classification of ecosystems widely used in British Columbia. disturbance regimes The historic patterns (frequency and extent) of natural processes such as fire, insects, wind, and mass movement that affect the ecosystems and landscapes in a particular area. ecological site classification A methodology for objectively classifying a site in terms of its climate and soil quality. It assesses the suitability of a range of tree species and plant communities, based on their ecological requirements and the match with key site factors. ecosystem approaches A strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. ecosystem mapping A process of identifying and recording where different ecosystems are located in a landscape. ecosystem resilience The ability of an ecosystem to maintain its normal patterns of nutrient cycling and biomass production after being subjected to an ecological disturbance. ecosystem services The direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being. forest health The condition of a forest and how well it is able to meet management objectives. geomorphology The science of landforms with an emphasis on their origin, evolution, form, and distribution across the physical landscape. pest infestation The occurrence of one or more pest species in an area or location where their numbers and impact are currently or potentially at intolerable levels. rare ecosystem An ecological community that is not found very commonly. soils The organic and inorganic materials on the surface of the earth that provide the medium for plant growth. watershed assessment An evaluation of the watershed. watershed resiliency The ability of a watershed to recover from disturbance events.
- Fisheries Management Description
aboriginal fisheries (first nations fisheries, indigenous fisheries) Fisheries run by First Nations organizations. acoustic telemetry A process of tracking fish in three dimensions, usually used to monitor the fine-scale behavior of fish for scientific studies. This is done by putting small sound-emitting devices called acoustic tags on the fish. annual report A comprehensive report on activities throughout the preceding year. beach seine A long net that is made fast to the shore at one end and then circled about a school of fish and drawn ashore. biotelemetry The detection, tracking, or monitoring of animals and their behavior using a telemeter, an instrument for tracking animal movements from a distance.
bycatch – The unwanted fish and other marine creatures caught during commercial fishing for a different species.
cannery A factory where fish is canned. catch rate The number of fish caught per fishing trip – by effort – or the total number of fishing trips taken. catch statistics Collection, organization, display, analysis, interpretation and presentation of fisheries data. catchability A concept in fishery biology which reflects the efficiency of a particular fishery. coded-wired telemetry A monitoring procedure using coded-wired tags, very small magnetized stainless steel wires, for identifying fish. commercial fisheries The industry devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries. counting fence A live trap fence used in rivers to monitor the number of fish migrating up or down the river. dipnetting A procedure of using a large-diameter net to scoop fish out of the river. Different types and sizes of nets are used in different fisheries, however the methods used are similar from one fishery to another. Dipnetting can take place from shore or from a boat. escapement The amount of a fish population that does not get caught by commercial or recreational fisheries and returns to their freshwater spawning habitat. exploitation rate The proportion of the numbers or biomass removed by fishing. if the biomass is 1000 tons and the harvest during a year is 200 tons, the annual exploitation rate is 20%. fish farms Facilities where fish are artificially bred or cultivated, e.g., for food or to restock lakes for angling. fisheries management The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives. gillnet A large net that hangs vertically in the water. Floats line the top of the net, while weights line the bottom of the net. The net is made of transparent monofilament line, so fish and other animals are unable to see it. harvest data Data or information pertaining to the number or weight of fish caught and retained from a given area over a given period of time. harvest rate Number or weight of fish caught and retained per unit of time. hatcheries Facilities where salmon are raised and released in an effort to supplement wild stocks. Eggs are taken from returning spawners, fertilized, and incubated at the hatchery. Eggs are hatched and juveniles are raised until ready to be released into the stream. hatchery-reared Fish that were hatched in a facility and released to a rearing habitat. historic catch A record of fish caught in the past. historical abundance A record of the number or the amount of fish in the past. historical management reports Documents providing information on management activities and outcomes from historical periods. hydroacoustic Active sound in water (sonar) that is used to study fish. marine interception fisheries where fish are caught on their return migratory route but some distance from their native freshwater areas. marine management The process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern the marine area in order to ensure sustainable development in the marine area. mark-recapture A technique used to estimate the size of a population when it is impractical to count every individual. The basic method is that a small number of individuals are captured, a harmless mark is put on them, and they are released back into the population. At a later date, another small group is captured, and the number of individuals with a mark is recorded. This allows an estimate of the population size to be made. microsatellite A tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from one to six or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times. This results in a higher mutation rate than in other areas of DNA leading to high genetic diversity. mortality A measure of the number of deaths in a population. overexploitation Overuse of a renewable resource to the point that it is no longer renewable or its quantity drops dramatically for a sustained period of time. overharvesting The harvesting of resources in an unsustainable manner. radiotelemetry A process of locating fish and tracking their movements using radio signals. recovery plan A document describing the current status and threats to a population, habitat, or ecosystem, and intended methods for increasing the population size or improving the condition of a habitat or ecosystem. recreational fishery Fishing for pleasure or competition, in contrast to commercial fishery, which is for profit. recruitment The number of fish surviving to enter the fishery or to some life history stage such as settlement or maturity. resource management Management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. salmon enumeration The procedure of counting the amount or number of salmon using various techniques such as counting fences or tagging. salmon farms Facilities where salmon are artificially cultivated and harvested. In BC, these are primarily ocean net-pen systems. strategic salmon health initiative (sshi) A partnership between the Pacific Salmon Foundation, Genome BC, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada primarily dedicated to examining the impact of infectious disease on the mortality rate of juvenile salmon during their early ocean migration. survival rate The percentage of surviving individuals in a study group. sustainable harvest A method of harvesting that provides a constant supply of resources throughout the landscape, with future yields unaffected or improved by current harvesting methods. sustained yield Production of a biological resource (such as timber or fish) under management procedures which ensure replacement of the part harvested by regrowth or reproduction before another harvest occurs. tagging The attaching of markers to fish for monitoring purposes. wild salmon policy (wsp) A policy implemented by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) which maintains healthy and diverse salmon populations and their habitats in both BC and Yukon that will support sustainable fisheries now, and meet the needs of future generations. Additional information can be found here
- General Descriptions
geology The science that deals with the dynamics and physical history of the earth, the materials of which it is composed, and the physical, chemical, and biological changes that the earth has undergone or is undergoing. industrial pollution The undesirable outcome when industries emit harmful by-products and waste into the environment such as emissions to air or water bodies (water pollution), deposition on landfills etc. (land pollution) or emission of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere (air pollution). invasive species A species that is not native to a specific location, and that has a tendency to spread. Invasive species can cause damage to ecosystems, human health, and the economy. inventory An attempt to catalogue all of the species, populations, or communities present in a study area. pollution The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. wildlife Undomesticated animals living in the wild, including those hunted for food, sport, or profit. video Resource with a video link. visualization Resource with an interactive data visualization.
- Geographic Area
aitken creek A sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley River watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here ailport creek Located near Topley, Ailport Creek is a sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley River watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here babine lake The longest natural lake in British Columbia, located northeast of Burns Lake. It drains northwest into the Babine River. An outline of the Babine Lake watershed can be found here babine river The Babine River flows from Nilkitkwa Lake, downstream of Babine Lake, northwest to the confluence with the Skeena River, 10 km downstream of Kisgegas. An outline of the Babine River watershed can be found here babine river corridor park A provincial park in British Columbia, located to the north of Hazelton. It protects the heart of the Babine River watershed – a wild river, home to steelhead and salmon and to the bears who feed on them. barren creek A sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley River watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here brown paint creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here buck creek Located near Houston, British Columbia, Buck Creek is a sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here bulkley river A major tributary of the Skeena River. Much of the Bulkey is paralleled by Highway 16. It flows west from Bulkley Lake past Perow and is joined near Houston by the Morice River, its major tributary. The Bulkley continues north past Quick, Telkwa and Smithers. It then meets the Skeena River near Hazelton. The outline of Bulkley River watershed can be found here canada eez The Exclusive Economic Zone of Canada is a sea zone over which Canada has special rights regarding exploration and use of marine resources. It reaches 200 nautical miles outwards from the coast. cesford creek A sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley River watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here clifford creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here corral creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here crow creek cullon creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here date creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here dfo area 4 Fishery management area under Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Area 4 includes Chatham Sound and Porcher Island. The map could be found here dfo area 5 Fishery management area under Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Area 5 includes Grenville Channel and Principe Channel. The map could be found here digby island A small island immediately west of Kaien Island, which is the location of the city of Prince Rupert, British Columbia. Digby Island is located in the Skeena Estuary. elizabeth creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here foxy creek ironside creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here johnny david creek kalum river The Kalum River is a lower tributary of the Skeena located near Terrace. An outline of the Kalum River watershed can be found here kispiox river The Kispiox River is a tributary of the Skeena, flowing southeast to meet that river above its confluence with the Bulkley near Hazelton. The outline of the Kispiox River watershed can be found here kitwanga river A tributary of the Skeena River near Hazelton in northwestern British Columbia. The river begins in the mountains to the northwest and curves around via and including Kitwancool Lake before heading south to the confluence with the Skeena. lakelse watershed The watershed surrounding Lakelse Lake, near Terrace, British Columbia. An outline of the watershed can be found here lelu island An island located in the Skeena Estuary between Smith and Ridley Islands. Flora Bank, located off of Lelu Island, is important habitat for juvenile salmon. lower skeena The lower part of the Skeena River Watershed, covering the area from Terrace to Ecstall-Spoksuut Conservancy and Ecstall-Sparkling Conservancy. An outline of the Lower Skeena sub-watershed can be found here maxan creek mccully creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here mckilligan creek mcquarrie creek mcqueen creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here middle skeena The middle part of the Skeena River Watershed, covering the area between Sustut Provincial Park and Protected Area and Swan Lake/Kispiox River Provincial Park. An outline of the Middle Skeena sub-watershed can be found here morice river The Morice River flows out of Morice Lake southwest of Houston, BC. The Morice River is a favourite destination for many steelhead anglers. An outline of the Morice River watershed can be found here moricetown canyon A natural land feature located in Moricetown, BC. It transforms into a chute at one point on the Bulkley River. The rock cliffs of the canyon start to converge, eventually tightening and squeezing the river into a 1/4 mile wide rock crevice creating white water rapids. murder creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here nangeese river A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here pacific northwest A geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and by the Rocky Mountains on the east. perow creek Located between Topley and Houston, Perow Creek is a sub-watershed of the Upper Bulkley River watershed. An outline of the sub-watersheds can be found here port edward A district municipality located on the North Coast of British Columbia. Port Edward is located in the Skeena Estuary. prince rupert A port city on British Columbia’s northwest coast. Prince Rupert is a part of the Skeena Estuary. richfield creek skeena estuary The tidal mouth of the Skeena River near Prince Rupert, British Columbia. Tidal mudflats and shallow intertidal passages in the Skeena Estuary provide vital habitat for fish and birds. skeena river The second-longest river entirely within British Columbia, the Skeena originates south of the Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Provincial Park in north western British Columbia, forming a divide with the Klappan River, a tributary of the Stikine River. It flows for 570 km before it empties into Chatham Sound, Telegraph Passage and Ogden Channel, east of the Dixon Entrance, all part of the Pacific Ocean. skunsnat creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here steep canyon creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here sustut river A major tributary of the Skeena RIver. The Sustut River forms the northwest boundary of the Hogem Ranges and flows southwest to meet the Skeena north of Hazelton. An outline to its watershed can be found here sweetin river A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here twain creek A sub-watershed of the Kispiox River watershed. An outline of the sub-watershed can be found here tyhee lake Tyhee Lake is located just outside of Telkwa. The lake is heavily used for recreational activities and a popular provincial park is located on the shore. upper bulkley river The upper part of the Bulkley River, extending as far downstream as the confluence of the Bulkley and Morice rivers. An outline of the Upper Bulkley River watershed and its sub-watersheds can be found here upper skeena The upper part of the Skeena River Watershed, covering the area between Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Provincial Park and Tatlatui Provincial Park to the confluence of the Mosque River and the Skeena River. An outline of the Upper Skeena sub-watershed can be found here zymoetz river A tributary of the Skeena River. The Zymoetz River originates in the Coast Mountains and flows generally south and west to join the Skeena River just east of Terrace. An outline of its watershed can be found here
- GIS Data
1:20,000 A 1:20,000 scale for a map. The widely used BC Freshwater Atlas uses a 1:20,000 scale. aerial photo An image taken from a high altitude, used for a variety of applications, such as viewing an area over time and noting changes in land use. atlas A collection of maps. cartography The discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study of maps. digital elevation model (dem) A representation of terrain surface created from elevation data. By interpolating known elevation data from sources such as ground surveys and photogrammetric data capture, a digital elevation model grid can be created. excel spreadsheet An electronic document in which data is arranged in the rows and columns of a grid and can be manipulated and used in calculations, formatted as a file suitable for the software Microsoft Excel. freshwater atlas (fwa) A standardized dataset for mapping British Columbia’s hydrological features. The atlas defines watershed boundaries and provides a connected network of streams, lakes and wetlands. This network serves as the foundation for sophisticated analysis and modelling. geographic data Data having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth. geomatics The modern discipline which integrates the tasks of gathering, storing, processing, modeling, analyzing, and delivering spatially referenced or location information. gis data Data that is input into a GIS (Geographic Information System), a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. glacier A persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. lake A large body of water (larger and deeper than a pond) within a body of land. landsat 7 The seventh satellite of the Landsat program, the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. landsat 8 The most recently launched Landsat satellite. It is collecting data and imagery used in agriculture, education, business, science, and government. map A diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc. orthoimagery A uniform-scale image where corrections have been made for feature displacement such as building tilt and for scale variations caused by terrain relief, sensor geometry, and camera tilt. river A large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream. satellite imagery Images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. statistics The science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data. topography A detailed description or representation on a map of the natural and artificial features of an area. toponomy The study of place names.
anthropogenic alteration Changes that result from human action or presence. They may be deliberate, such as when land is cleared for agriculture or new species are intentionally introduced. Anthropogenic changes may also be an unrecognized or poorly understood side-effect of human activity, as with the decreased biodiversity that accompanies increased urbanization. anthropogenic disturbance A change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem due to human activities. conservation A practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitats and prevent species extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range. critical habitat Specific geographic areas that contain features essential to the conservation of an endangered or threatened species and that may require special management and protection. Critical habitat may also include areas that are not currently occupied by the species but will be needed for its recovery. eelgrass A flowering underwater plant with 1/4-inch wide leaves that can reach lengths of 3 feet. estuarine habitat A habitat that occurs where salty water from the ocean mixes with freshwater. The water is generally partially enclosed or cut off from the ocean, and may consist of channels, sloughs, and mud and sand flats. River mouths, lagoons, and bays often constitute estuarine habitat. fish barrier Anything that stops or impedes aquatic species from moving where needed to survive. This includes physical barriers, sediment barriers, water quality and temperature variations, and flow variations. fish habitat assessment An evaluation of fish habitat and its quality to aid in restoration and management. fish passage A structure on or around artificial and natural barriers (such as dams, locks and waterfalls) to facilitate fish migration. Most fishways enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps (hence the term ladder) into the waters on the other side. fish-bearing habitat Water frequented by fish and any other areas on which fish depend directly or indirectly to carry out their life processes, including spawning grounds and nursery, rearing, food supply and migration areas. fisheries habitat enhancement An activity conducted to increase or decrease a specific function for the purpose of improving fish habitats. floodplain connectivity Hydrological connection of river system to historic floodplain and off-channel habitat. foreshore habitat Land along the edge of a body of water that is repeatedly submerged and revealed by the tide. habitat alteration A change in land use or land cover that has an impact on local ecosystems. habitat indicators Scientific measurements that can track habitat conditions over time and identify habitats that are most productive, limiting, or at most risk of disturbance. Indicators can also improve understanding of linkages among habitat pressures, habitat status, and management responses. habitat loss Process by which natural or anthropogenic activities damage and destroy habitat to such an extent that it is no longer capable of supporting the species and ecological communities that naturally occur there. high value habitat Habitats that are resource-rich, are in, or contain rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems. intertidal habitat The area where the ocean meets the land between high and low tides. land cover alteration Changes that result from human activities or nature on surface cover on the ground, whether vegetation, urban infrastructure, water, bare soil or other. land disturbance Activity that changes the physical conditions of land form, vegetation and hydrology, creates bare soil, or otherwise may cause erosion or sedimentation. Such activities may include clearing, removal of vegetation, stripping, excavating, logging and similar activities. large woody debris (lwd) Trees, logs and sticks which fall into rivers and streams and can significantly influence the flow and shape of the stream channel. linear disturbance Human land use features such as roads, trails, seismic lines, powerline right-of-ways, pipeline clearings, and similar that facilitate surface access. marine ecosystem The largest of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems, distinguished by waters that have a high salt content, cover more than 70% of the surface of the Earth and account for more than 97% of Earth’s water supply and 90% of habitable space on Earth. monitoring Processes and activities that need to take place to characterize and observe the quality of the environment. natural disturbance A disturbance with a natural cause, such as a fire or flood. Many organisms and ecosystems depend on natural disturbances for survival. plankton bloom Phenomenon in the ocean in which large numbers of phytoplankton are concentrated in one area. This can cause changes in the colour of the surface water. redd Nest made of gravel where female salmon and steelhead deposit their eggs. The female digs a depression in the gravel, she deposits the eggs, the eggs are immediately fertilized, and then she covers the eggs with gravel. rehabilitation The process of returning habitats to a healthy condition. restoration Renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats by active human intervention. riparian disturbance Land disturbance occurring in a riparian area (the interface between land and a river or stream). riparian habitat Habitat found along the banks of a river, stream, or other actively moving source of water. riverine habitat Habitat in or along the banks of a river. stream crossing An instance where a stream is crossed by a road, pipeline, railway, or any other thing which might restrict the flow of the stream in ordinary or flood conditions. stream assessment An evaluation of a stream using various standardized techniques to aid in making recommendations for restoration and enhancement projects. stream crossing density The number of road-stream crossings in the area studied divided by the catchment area. stream crossing quality index A survey tool intended to monitor the effects of stream crossings on sediment influx to the stream. The tool has been implemented widely in the central interior and north eastern regions of BC. The procedure entails assessing the size and characteristics of sediment sources in the vicinity of stream crossings and the potential for the sediment to reach the stream. sub-tidal habitat Habitat which lies below the level of mean low water for spring tides. Normally it is covered by water at all states of the tide. wetland disturbance A change in the wetland, areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, that could have a negative impact to the habitats in the area. wetland habitat Habitat in which the land is covered by water—salt, fresh, or somewhere in between—either seasonally or permanently.
bridge A structure carrying a road, path, railroad, or canal across a river, ravine, road, railroad, or other obstacle. coalbed methane Coalbed methane is a form of natural gas that is produced from coal beds. It is composed mostly of methane, with small amounts of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and heavier hydrocarbons like ethane. culvert A tunnel carrying a stream under a road or railway. cutblocks Areas of Crown or private land in which timber is to be harvested or has been harvested. dams A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or as a water supply. effluent Liquid waste discharged into rivers, lakes, or the sea. forest harvesting Cutting trees and delivering them to sawmills, pulp mills and other wood-processing plants. forestry industry An industry which encompasses a wide range of activities, from timber harvesting to the manufacture of a variety of wood and paper products. harbour A sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. hydroelectric power Electricity produced from hydropower, conversion of energy from flowing water into electricity. industrial activities Activities relating to industries such as forestry, mining, energy generation, and fishing. Activities could include exploration, development, or operational activities. industrial mining Mines that are currently engaged in mineral and metal extraction operations. The materials can range from common to precious, and from inert to hazardous. The mines themselves can be small or very large in size. liquefied natural gas (lng) Natural gas in its liquid state. When natural gas is chilled to a temperature of about minus 160° C (minus 260° F) at atmospheric pressure, it becomes a clear, colourless and odourless liquid. marine tanker A ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, and gas carrier. Tankers also carry commodities such as vegetable oils, molasses and wine. mine A pit or excavation in the earth from which mineral substances are taken. mineral mining The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth through development of a mine. mining The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. non-bridged A stream or river that is not crossed by a bridge. oil and gas Activities relating to the oil and gas industry; this may include exploration, extraction, refinement and transportation (which may include oil tankers, pipelines, and/or rail) of petroleum products. oil tanker A ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. petrochemicals A category of organic chemicals derived principally from two feedstocks: natural gas liquids (NGL) obtained from natural gas processing plants, and oil refinery streams such as naphtha and light gas oil. pipelines The long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes—a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. pulp mill A manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. rail The system of transport that uses trains. railway A track made of steel rails along which trains run. road A long, hard surface built for vehicles to travel on. road access A road affording access to a particular area, such as a river, lake, watershed, etc. road density The ratio of the length of the road network to the land area in an area of interest (which could be an administrative area, watershed, or other area of interest). The road network includes all roads: highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other urban and rural roads. Road density is measured in kilometers of road per square kilometer of land. run of river power Power or electricity generated by using part of natural stream flows and natural elevation differences found in mountainous regions. The difference between run of river and large hydropower is that run of river systems do not dam the river to create a water reservoir. Most run of river facilities do use a small dam, or weir, to ensure enough water enters the penstock and have a small reservoir called “pondage” to store small amounts of water for same-day use, however they cannot store large amounts of water for future use. surface disturbance Any disturbance of an area which causes a lasting impact to the land or waters during the activity or after the activity has ceased. surface erosion The wearing away of the earth’s surface by the force of water and gravity, and consists of soil particle dislodgement, entrainment, transport, and deposition. timber harvesting Similar to forest harvesting, a procedure of cutting trees and delivering them to sawmills, pulp mills and other wood-processing plants. trail A marked or established path or route especially through a forest or mountainous region. transmission line A conductor or conductors designed to carry electricity or an electrical signal over large distances with minimum losses and distortion. transportation The movement of goods and persons from place to place and the various means by which such movement is accomplished. urbanization The process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities.
- Land Use and Development
agriculture The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products. cumulative effects Changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions. dwellings A place where people live, such as a house or apartment. economic analysis The study of economic systems, assessing or examining topics or issues from an economist’s perspective. economic value A measure of the benefit from a good or service to an economic agent. environmental assessment Identifying, estimating, and evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and proposed projects, by conducting environmental studies, to mitigate the relevant negative effects prior to making decisions and commitments. forest management A branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, legal, economic, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. front country Front country is composed of outdoor areas that are easily accessible by vehicle and mostly visited by day users. Developed campgrounds are also included in the front country arena. Front country locations tend to be more crowded and attract a wider range of visitor than backcountry. guiding The process of directing and supervising by experienced and knowledgeable individuals in activities such as wilderness angling, hunting, or hiking. hydroelectric development Exploration, planning, and/or construction of hydroelectric projects. land resource management plan (lrmp) A document resulting from a BC Land and Resource Management Planning process that describes recommended land uses based on consultation with stakeholders for a particular area. The Skeena Knowledge Trust is mandated to make relevant land and resource management plans accessible, including the North Coast, Kalum, Morice, Bulkley, and Kispiox, Land and Resource Management Plans. land use plan The process of regulating the use of land in an effort to promote more desirable social and environmental outcomes as well as a more efficient use of resources. land-use management The process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources. landscape unit plan A document providing a legal framework for establishment of objectives to address landscape and stand level biodiversity values in designated Landscape Units. mineral development The development of mineral resources; this may include exploration, mine development, and other activities. natural gas development The development of natural gas resources and industry. natural resource management The management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. park An area of land, usually in a largely natural state, for the enjoyment of the public, having facilities for rest and recreation, often owned, set apart, and managed by a city, state, or nation. park management The future direction, policies, priorities and actions for implementation to guide the operations, development and stewardship of the park. port development The development or expansion of a marine port. powerline corridor Designated space around a powerline in which development is restricted. protected area A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. range land Grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. recreation Activity of leisure engaged in out of doors, most commonly in natural settings such as fishing, hunting, backpacking, and horseback riding. resource development model A system of data and inferences intended to represent how development of natural resources proceeds. resource management zone (rmz) Resource Management Zones may be designated as part of a land use planning process. RMZ’s provide geographically focused, strategic direction for all land and resource development in the planning area. Each RMZ is described in its respective land use planning document. resource policy Principles, rules, or guidelines addressing how natural resources should be managed. risk assessment Process or method of identifying factors that have the potential to cause harm and analyzing and evaluating the risk associated with the factor. In a fisheries context, this might mean assessing the potential for harm from an industrial development or management strategy. road development Construction of new roads and development of the road network. special management zone (smz) Established by the BC government through land use planning processes to maintain and enhance values other than resource extraction – such as environmental and social concerns. spatial patterns Perceptual structures, placements, or arrangements of objects on Earth. They also include the space in between those objects. Patterns may be recognized because of their arrangement; maybe in a line or by a clustering of points. tourism The commercial organization and operation of vacations and visits to places of interest. wilderness A natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity. wilderness angling Fishery activities done in unmodified natural environments.
- Life cycle
adult An organism that is fully developed and mature. annual rings The growth layers of fish such as the scales, otoliths, vertebrate, fin spines, eye lenses, teeth, or bones of the jaw, pectoral girdle, and opercular series. Researchers interested in determining a fish’s age could use techniques involving counting natural annual rings to look for structures which increase incrementally with age. circuli Any of the concentric circles on each scale of a fish, each of which indicates the annual growth of that scale. decreased run A decrease in the number of grown salmon who come back to freshwater habitat in order to lay their eggs. female The sex that typically has the capacity to bear young or produce eggs. fry A recently hatched fish that has reached the stage where its yolk-sac has almost disappeared and its swim bladder is operational to the point where the fish can actively feed itself. growth rate The rate at which an individual or individuals increase in size. historic run The past data or records of the process which adult salmons come back to freshwater habitat to lay their eggs. juvenile Fish not yet sexually mature. In salmon, juveniles are divided into the stages alevin, fry, parr, and smolt. male The sex that typically has the capacity to fertilize eggs. mature Fully developed adult. migration Movement of anadromous fish from their natal streams to the ocean (typically in spring), or from the ocean to their natal streams where they spawn (typically in fall). overwintering The process by which fish pass through or wait out the winter season. Appropriate overwintering habitat is crucial for survival, with particular concerns being sufficient water depth and dissolved oxygen levels. rearing The life stage in which juvenile salmon grow before entering open ocean waters. Rearing habitat can include streams or rivers, lakes, or estuarine and foreshore areas. smolt A young salmon or sea trout about two years old that is at the stage of development when it assumes the silvery color of the adult and is ready to migrate to the sea. spawning The process where mature salmon return to their natal river to reproduce (spawn). After spawning, all Pacific salmon and most Atlantic salmon die. summer run Steelhead that migrate into the river system in July-August. winter run Steelhead that enter the river system starting in late November, with peak run times being from December through early May.
age The period of time an organism has been alive. age structure The distribution of individuals among various ages. biological characteristics Physiological or behavioural characteristics of an organism. For example, length, weight, colour, or social behaviour. creel survey The collection of data concerning the number of fish caught by sport fishermen (as on a particular stream or in a particular area) used especially in determining effects of stocking and in planning future limits for various species. distribution The natural geographic range of an organism. diversity the variability among living organisms from all sources including the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems enhanced stocks Fish populations in which cultured fish have been released into the population. This may be done to increase population size when a population is threatened, or to increase fishing opportunities. fish observation Data including a direct observation of fish presence. fish parasite Parasitic organism that relies on fish as a host species. fish presence Documented presence of fish in a stream or other location. genetic characteristics The traits that are passed on from parents to their offspring. genetic diversity The total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. genetic identification Individual or population identification using genetic markers or techniques. infectious disease Disorders caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. infestation State of being invaded or overrun by pests or parasites. It can also refer to the actual organisms living on or within a host. length-weight relationships Relationship between the weight of the organism and its length. low abundance The situation in which a low number of individuals of a species are present in a particular area. microparasite A subcategory of parasite that is short-lived, smaller than other parasites, and reproduces within its host, in contrast to macroparasites, which do not reproduce in their hosts. mixed-stock fisheries A fishery whose stock consists of fish that are of a variety of ages, sizes, species, geographic or genetic origins or any combination of these variables. ocean survival The rate or proportion of a population of fish that survive their ocean life stage. parasite An organism that lives in or on an organism of another species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other’s expense. physical characteristics Defining traits or features about an organism’s body. These are aspects that are visually apparent, such as length, weight, or colour. population survey The process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, and analysing information on a population. The information collected could be used to assess the population size, population density, age structure, or other characteristics. productivity The rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. recruitment The increase in a natural population as progeny grow and new individuals arrive. species abundance The number of individuals per species. species composition The identity of all the different organisms that make up a community. species richness The number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region. sport fishery survey A research method used for collecting data from recreational fisheries to gain information and insights on various topics of interest such as physical and biological characteristics of fish caught, their species composition, diversity, and abundance. wild stocks A stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage (includes native).
benthic invertebrates Organisms that live on the bottom of a water body or in the sediment and have no backbone. bull trout Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a char of the family Salmonidae native to northwestern North America. The fins of a bull trout have white leading edges. Its head and mouth are unusually large for salmonids. Bull trout are listed as a threatened species. chinook Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. Chinook are anadromous fish native to the North Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America, ranging from California to Alaska, as well as Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Arctic north-east Siberia. The Chinook is blue-green, red, or purple on the back and top of the head, with silvery sides and white ventral surfaces. It has black spots on its tail and the upper half of its body. Chinook have a black gum line which is present in both salt and freshwater. chum Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. The body of the chum salmon is deeper than most salmonid species. Chum have an ocean coloration of silvery blue green with some indistinct spotting in a darker shade, and a paler belly. coho Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. During their ocean phase, coho salmon have silver sides and dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked. After entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, and the males may show a slight arching of the back. cutthroat trout Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkia) is a fish species of the family Salmonidae native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin in North America. Throughout their native and introduced ranges, cutthroat trout vary widely in size, coloration and habitat selection. Their coloration can range from golden to gray to green on the back. Cutthroat trout can generally be distinguished from rainbow trout by the presence of basibranchial teeth at the base of tongue and a maxillary that extends beyond the posterior edge of the eye. dolly varden Dolly Varden trout (Salvelinus malma) is a species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The back and sides are olive green or muddy gray, shading to white on the belly. The body has scattered pale yellow or pinkish-yellow spots. There are no black spots or wavy lines on the body or fins. Small red spots are present on the lower sides. grizzly bear Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) also known as the “North American brown bear” is a large population or subspecies of the brown bear inhabiting North America. Although variable in color from blond to nearly black, grizzly bear fur is typically brown with darker legs and commonly white or blond tipped fur on the flank and back. kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), also known as the kokanee trout, little redfish, silver trout, kikanning, Kennerly’s salmon, Kennerly’s trout, or Walla, is the non-anadromous form of the sockeye salmon (meaning that they do not migrate to the sea, instead living out their entire lives in freshwater). The kokanee species can be found in the northern United States of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, California, and Oregon. It can also be found up through British Columbia and the Yukon in Canada. lamprey An ancient extant lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata. Lampreys live mostly in coastal and fresh waters and are found in most temperate regions except those in Africa. Adults superficially resemble eels in that they have scaleless, elongated bodies, and can range from 13 to 100 cm in length. Lacking paired fins, adult lampreys have large eyes, one nostril on the top of the head, and seven gill pores on each side of the head. limnetic fish Fish that live in the limnetic zone, the open and well-lit area of a freestanding body of fresh water, such as a lake or pond. mountain goat Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a hoofed mammal endemic to North America. A subalpine to alpine species, it is a sure-footed climber commonly seen on cliffs and ice. Both male and female mountain goats have beards, short tails, and long black horns, 15–28 cm in length, which contain yearly growth rings. pelagic fish Fish living in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters. The pelagic zone consists of the open water column, being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore. periphyton Freshwater organisms attached or clinging to plants and other objects projecting above the bottom sediments. pink Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. It is the smallest and most abundant of the Pacific salmon. In the ocean, pink salmon are bright silver fish. After returning to their spawning streams, their coloring changes to pale grey on the back with yellowish-white belly. The native range of the species is in the Pacific and Arctic coastal waters and rivers, from the Sacramento River in northern California to the Mackenzie River in Canada; and in the west from the Lena River in Siberia to Korea and Honshu in Japan. pink odd Pink salmon that return to freshwater to spawn in odd years. pink even Pink salmon that return to freshwater to spawn in even years. rainbow trout Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States (U.S.), Southern Europe, Australia, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species. Coloration varies widely between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are generally blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, which is most pronounced in breeding males. sockeye Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it. Sockeye salmon range as far south as the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific and in northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific. They range as far north as the Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Sockeye are blue tinged with silver in color while living in the ocean. When they return to spawning grounds, their bodies become red and their heads turn green. steelhead The freshwater form of the steelhead trout is the rainbow trout. The difference between these forms of the species is that steelhead migrate to the ocean and return to freshwater tributaries to spawn, whereas rainbow trout do not leave freshwater. Steelhead are also larger and less colorful than rainbow trout. The steelhead are native to freshwater and ocean environments across North America, but have been introduced to every other continent except Antarctica. Steelhead are also larger and less colorful than rainbow trout. The body of the steelhead trout is silvery and streamlined with a rounder head. There are black dots and a red or pink stripe running down the side of the fish horizontally. water birds Birds that live on or around water. zooplankton Small floating or weakly swimming organisms that drift with water currents and, with phytoplankton, make up the planktonic food supply upon which almost all oceanic organisms are ultimately dependent.
aquifer An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). drinking water Water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation. flood event A relatively high streamflow overtopping the natural or artificial banks in any reach of a stream. flood plains An area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. groundwater The water found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rock. hydrology The science that encompasses the study of water on the Earth’s surface and beneath the surface of the Earth, the occurrence and movement of water, the physical and chemical properties of water, and its relationship with the living and material components of the environment. hydropower The conversion of energy from flowing water into electricity. It is considered a renewable energy source because the water cycle is constantly renewed by the sun. oceanography The study of the oceans, including their circulation, physical and chemical properties, and life. tidal currents The alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide caused by tide-producing forces. Also called tidal stream. wetland Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail.
- Water Quantity
flow alteration Any change in the natural flow regime of a river or stream or water level of a lake or reservoir induced by human activities. groundwater curtailment The restriction or reduction of groundwater usage or accessibility for the purpose of streamflow recovery. hydrometric station A station on a river, lake, estuary, or reservoir where water quantity and quality data are collected and recorded. Such data may include stage (water surface elevation), discharge, sediment concentration, water temperature, chemical and biological properties of water, ice formations, and other characteristics. irrigation The supply of water to land or crops to help growth. low flow Flow of water in a stream during prolonged dry weather. peak flow Maximum flow of water in a stream after a precipitation event. point of diversion (pod) The place on the natural channel of a stream where an applicant proposes, or a licensee is authorized, to divert water from the stream. stream flow The volume of water that moves through a specific point in a stream during a given period of time. surface water Water on the surface of continents such as in a river, lake, or wetland. water allocation The process of distributing water supplies to meet the various requirements of a community. water budget An accounting of the rates of water movement and the change in water storage in all or parts of the atmosphere, land surface, and subsurface. water extraction The process of taking water from any source, either temporarily or permanently, for flood control or to obtain water. water level The height reached by the water in a reservoir, river, storage tank, etc. water license Allows a licensee to divert, store and use specific quantities of water for one or more water use purposes. A water license may also authorize works related to the diversion and use of the water. water use Use of water by agriculture, industry, energy production and households, including in-stream uses such as fishing, recreation, transportation and waste disposal. well pumping A procedure where water is extracted from a water well.
- Water Quality
agricultural runoff Water from farm fields due to irrigation, rain, or melted snow that flows over the earth and can absorb into the ground, enter bodies of waters or evaporate. This runoff can contain pesticides, sediment (soil particles), nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium from fertilizers) and metals, which can contaminate sources of water. bioaccumulation The gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. contamination The process of making something dirty, polluted, or poisonous by adding a chemical, waste, or infection. dioxin A highly toxic compound produced as a byproduct in some manufacturing processes, notably herbicide production and paper bleaching. It is a serious and persistent environmental pollutant. discharge The amount (volume) of water carried by a stream past a point per second. It is measured in cubic meters or cubic feet per second. There are several factors that affect stream discharge. The velocity of the water affects it; faster water means more passes per second so more discharge. The width and depth of the river also affects it; a larger river at the same speed will have higher discharge. Low discharge may cause problems with water supply and fish passage, while high discharge may result in flooding. dissolved oxygen The level of free, non-compound oxygen present in water or other liquids. It is an important parameter in assessing water quality because of its influence on the organisms living within a body of water. environmental monitoring system (ems) BC Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy’s primary data repository for environmental monitoring data. The system was designed to capture data covering physical, chemical, and biological analyses performed on water, air, soil, and waste discharges, as well as data from ambient monitoring throughout the province. fine sediment Inorganic particles smaller than 2mm that are deposited on the beds of rivers and streams. furan A colourless flammable toxic liquid heterocyclic compound, used in the manufacture of cotton textiles and in the synthesis of nylon. historical flow patterns Historical records of seasonal flow rates. hydraulic connection The reasonable likelihood that pumping of groundwater from a well will eventually result in a change in the flow of a stream or spring or change in the level of a lake, pond, wetland that overlies or borders the aquifer, over a time period and to an extent that the decision maker must take into account in considering the environmental flow needs of the stream or whether the rights of other authorized users on the stream are likely to be detrimentally affected. hydrochemistry The study of the chemical composition of natural waters. metals Metals are introduced to aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils and rocks, from volcanic eruptions, and from a variety of human activities involving mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal pollutants. Some metals, when introduced to the aquatic environment, can have negative effects on water quality and fish health. ocean dumping The deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other human-made structures. ph A measure of hydrogen ion concentration, interpreted as a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. quality assurance A system of documented procedures and plans established to ensure that the monitoring program produces data of known precision and bias. This includes staff training programs, calibration processes, written procedures and record keeping. runoff The portion of precipitation on land that ultimately reaches streams often with dissolved or suspended material. salinity The concentrations of salts in water or soils. sampling protocol The procedure used to select units from the study population to be measured. sediment quality The totality of features and characteristics of sediments. sewage Waste material that is carried through a sewer from a residence or an industrial workplace to be dumped or converted to a non-toxic form. snow melt Surface runoff produced from melting snow. turbidity A measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. The more total suspended solids in the water, the murkier it seems and the higher the turbidity. Turbidity is an important measure of the quality of water. waste discharge A procedure of discharging or releasing waste to air, water, and land. water chemistry Chemical substances or compounds that exist in waterbodies. water temperature A physical property expressing how hot or cold water is.